Urinary Tract Infection -Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors, Types, Diagnosis, Preventions and Treatments
Urinary Tract Infection is defined as a condition of is a bacterial infection of any part of the urinary tract. Women are at 10 times higher risk of develop the disease than men, according to the statistic and at least 50% of women will develop at least one urinary tract infection in their life time.
1. Pain and burning sensation in urination
2. Abnormal vaginal discharge
3. Abnormal pain
4. Blood in the urine
5. Strong smelling urine
6. Painful sexual intercourse
7. Nausea, vomiting
8. Frequent urge to urinate
Causes and risk factors
1. Multiple sex partner
Women who are sexual active with multiple partners are at higher risk of urinary tract infection as a result of sexual transmitting disease and bacteria invasion, according to the study of 468 women using the University of Michigan Health Service because of urinary symptoms, completed questionnaires regarding medical history, stress, clothing, diet, sexual activity, and birth control method during the previous 4 weeks. 1484 potential Health Service controls without urinary symptoms were selected as well as 115 student-population -based controls, conducted by University of Michigan School of Public Health, posted in PubMed, researchers found that UTIs significantly increased with the frequency of sexual intercourse.
2. Diabetes and aging
According to the study of “Urinary tract infections” by Litza JA, Brill JR., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation
It is said the women who are pregnant are at the increased risk of urinary tract infection in the between of 6 to 26 weeks, but according to the study of “Managing urinary tract infections” by
Saadeh SA, Mattoo TK., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure.
4. Bacterial infections
Bacteria is the main cause of all kinds of infection, including Urinary tract infection. In a study of “Urinary tract infections in women.Valiquette L, posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that
The predominant pathogen in both complicated and uncomplicated UTI remains pathogenic Escherichia coli, although Klebsiella sp. and Proteus appear with increased frequency in complicated UTI. Most often, bacteria cause UTIs by ascending means through the urethra into the bladder. Bacteria must possess virulence factors to cause UTI.
5. Contraceptive method
Believe or nor using contraceptive methods such as lubricated condom, a spermicidal cream or gel with an unlubricated condom increase the risk of urinary track infection by two-eightfolds in women. In a study of in a case-control study of sexually active college women ages 18-39 years. Cases (N = 144) were women with first urinary tract infection that was confirmed by culture recruited at the student health service, conducted by School of Public Health, University of Michigan, posted in PubMed, researchers found that using unlubricated condoms compared with using no birth control method strongly increased the risk of first urinary tract infection (odds ratio = 29.1; 95% confidence interval = 3.1-1,335). Using a lubricated condom (with or without spermicide in the lubricant) or a spermicidal cream or gel with an unlubricated condom was associated with two- to eightfold risk of first urinary tract infection. Unlubricated condom use was strongly associated with risk of first urinary tract infection, but this effect was largely neutralized by using a spermicidal cream or gel with the unlubricated condom or by using a lubricated condom.
6. Oral Contraceptions
Oral contraceptive method can cause hormone and glucose fluctuation that can lead urinary tract infection in some women. According to the study of In a cohort study, 200 women who chose DMPA for contraception were compared with 200 women who used the withdrawal method for urinary infection and urological symptoms after 3 months of consumption, conducted by Tarbiat Modarres University, posted in PubMed, researchers found that The rate of urinary infection and urological symptoms in the study group were higher than in the control group (p = 0.018, p pregnancy as well and concluded that We do not recommended administering depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception in women with a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy.
Tumors and abnormal cell mass can cause UTs obstruction such as bladder and kidneys that can lead to urinary tract infection, in a study of “Occurrence of urinary tract infection in children with significant upper urinary tract obstruction” by Roth CC, Hubanks JM, Bright BC, Heinlen JE, Donovan BO, Kropp BP, Frimberger D., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Our results have demonstrated a low occurrence of UTI in antenatally diagnosed patients not maintained on antibiotics. We have concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is unlikely to benefit most children with grade 3 or 4 hydronephrosis secondary to upper tract obstruction.
8. Medical history
Women who have a previous urinary tract infection are at higher risk to have it gain. According to the study of ” Risk factors for urinary tract infection” by Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, Hargrett-Bean NT, Layde PM., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that the history of previous urinary tract infection was significantly greater in cases than in either of the control groups.
9. Weakened immune system
Immune system protect our body in fighting against the foreign invasion, including bacteria and virus. according to the study of ” The innate immune response to uropathogenic Escherichia coli involves IL-17A in a murine model of urinary tract infection” by Sivick KE, Schaller MA, Smith SN, Mobley HL , posted by PubMed, researchers concluded that transcript expression of IL-17A in the bladders of infected mice correlated with a role in the innate immune response to UTI, and gammadelta cells seem to be a key source of IL-17A production. Although IL-17A seems to be dispensable for the generation of a protective response to uropathogenic E. coli, its importance in innate immunity is demonstrated by a defect in acute clearance of uropathogenic E. coli in IL-17A(-/-) mice. This clearance defect is likely a result of deficient cytokine and chemokine transcripts and impaired macrophage and neutrophil influx during infection. These results show that IL-17A is a key mediator for the innate immune response to UTIs.
Antibiotics are used to treat bacteria infection can also suppress the immune system and cause mutation of the bacteria that can increase the risk of urinary tract and other infections. According to the study of 349 transplant recipients, 77% received induction therapy with low-dose rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) and the others were treated with basiliximab. All patients received triple immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and prednisone, conducted by Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, posted in PubMed, researchers found that Seven patients (2%) developed wound infections. Wound infections were more common in obese and older patients. All wound infections were superficial and responded well to wound drainage and outpatient antibiotic therapy. Six patients (1.7%) experienced a urinary tract infection (UTI) within the first postoperative month. UTIs were more common in the patient with ureteral stent compared to nonstented patients (11.4% vs 0.3%, P<.001). No patient or graft was lost due to perioperative bacterial infections (PBI).
11. Renal insufficiency
Reduced kidney function can increase the riak of urinary tract infection. According to the study of "The interaction of urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency" by Fünfstück R, Ott U, Naber KG., posted in PubMed, reasearchers found that Defence factors (Tamm-Horsfall protein, defensin, phagocytic activity of granulocytes) and underlying anatomical lesions as well as pre-existing renal disease determine the severity of UTI and the prognosis of renal insufficiency.
Types of Urinary tract infection
Depending to the symptoms and location of organs affected, UTIs can be classified into the following
1. Infection of the bladder: cystitis
2. Infection of the Kidneys: pyelonephritis
3. Infection of Ureters: infection of the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder
4. Infection of Urethra: infection of the tube that empties urine from the bladder or urethritis
If you are experience urinary tract infection, after recording the family history and carefully physical examination, test of urine sample may be the first that your doctor order to detect any presence of bacteria for any low risk of complications, depending to the symptoms. In order to prevnr nay contamination, sample of urine is taken in the midstream
Urinalysis is also known as also known as R&M (Routine and Microscopy) performed by using urine test strips or light microscopy of urine samples to detect the cause of infection.
According to the study of`Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis`by Nicolle LE., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections treated in the outpatient setting and range in severity from minimally symptomatic cystitis to severe septic shock in a wide array of patients. Diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis can be inferred from history and physical, and confirmed by urinalysis
2. Urine Culture
If the urinalysis is negative, but the symptoms are indicated the UTIs, your doctor may order the test of Urine Culture. A urine culture is a test to identify bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), depending to the presence and numbers of the bacteria. no bactreia growth in 24 or 48 hours is an indication of no infection.
Ultrasound allows your doctor to visualize the Urinary Tract and around structures and obstructions of the flow of urine that cause the infection as well as looking for any abnormal cells growth mass, including tumor and cancer.
4. Voiding Cystourethrogram
Voiding Cystourethrogram is an X rays of the bladder and urethra with the injection of dye into the urethra and passed through the bladder to check for any abnormality of the bladder and urethra.
5. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
Intravenous pyelogram is a X ray of kidney, ureters and urinary bladder with the use of iodinated contrast material injected into veins to check for any obstruction in the urinary tract.
6. 6. In case of obstruction caused by tumor and cancer, further tests may be needed
a. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes. CT scan can only review the existence of cancer, but can not tell it is a primary or secondary cancer.
b. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is one of many advanced technology used to visualize internal structures cross sectional imaging of your body used effectively in providing the better details of the metastasis of cancer in the lung and surrounding areas.
A. How to prevent
1. Void high amount of sugar
Process sugar can decrease the immune system by delaying the immune white blood cells's function for up to 5 hours. According to the quote of "Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis" and posted in Dangers of Sugar Intake. Suppressing the immune system over prolonged period of time increases the risk of infection, including urinary tract infection.
2. Avoid excessive intake of Coffee
Can coffee promotes the risk of infection?, according to the study of in 15 men and women, showed that the responses to PHA and Con A were about one-third lower during coffee drinking compared to a period of abstinence from coffee (117335, 99856 and 181236, 153315, P less than 0.004, 0.009 respectively)., conducted by Department of Pediatrics, Rokach Hospital, posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that chemotaxis was higher in the coffee period at all concentrations. This exploratory study suggests that coffee intake modifies various measures of the immune function.
3. Avoid excessive intake of Caffeine
According to the article of How caffeine affects the immune system, posted in Caffeine addiction affect, the author wrote that The stimulating effects of caffeine are very much similar to body’s own response under stress and chronic stress weakens our immune system.
4. Avoid excessive alcohol drinking
Moderate alcohol consumption are beneficial to the immune system compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence, but excessive drinking can cause damage to the liver and can directly suppress a wide range of immune responses. According to the abstract of study of "Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review" by Romeo J, Wärnberg J, Nova E, Díaz LE, Gómez-Martinez S, Marcos A., posted in PubMed.
5. Don't hold it when you need to urinate
It is common sense, if you hold your urine, when you needs to, you can damage the auto response of the bladder muscles and increase the risk of bladder infection as urinary is also help to flush up the bacteria presented in your urinary tract.
6. Drinking equated amount of water
Water can help to flush out the bacteria presented any where in your urinary tract and dehydration, frequently, and incompletely empty the bladder increase the risk of urinary infection. According to the study of "Mild dehydration: a risk factor of urinary tract infection?" by Beetz R., posted in PubMed.
7. Shower instead of bath can be helpful
As the water goes down, it washes always the bacteria, instead holding them in the water.
8. Wipe your bottom front to back
It is avoid the bacteria from anus from entering the vaginal.
Douching increases the risk of irritation and can lead to urinary tract infection as a result of imbalance of good and bad bacteria as well as reducing the state of acidity to prevent bacteria and yeast invasion.
10. Avoid sexual transmitting diseases
By limiting numbers of sexual partners and known their medical history. No anal sex.
Diet is important to enhance immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals and invasion of bacteria and virus.
1. Foods contain high amount of antioxidant scavenger
Vitamin A, C, E are classified as antioxidant can be found abundantly in fruits and vegetable. they not only promte the immune function in free radicals scavenging but also protect our body against infection and inflammation. For more information visit Antioxidants
According to the study of "Cranberry and urinary tract infections" by Guay DR , posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that the findings of the Cochrane Collaboration support the potential use of cranberry products in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, in light of the heterogeneity of clinical study designs and the lack of consensus regarding the dosage regimen and formulation to use, cranberry products cannot be recommended for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs at this time. For other health benefits of foods, visit 100+ Healthy Foods Classification
probiotics enhance the balance of good and bad bacteria in the digestive tract and other related organs such as vagina. According to the study of "Role of probiotics in urogenital healthcare" by Waigankar SS, Patel V., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the value of a probiotics cannot be taken at face value. Probiotics must not be considered a panacea for treating urogenital infections. However, the available data promises that it will be a strong option in improving and maintaining urogenital health.
4. Moderate alcohol consumption
In a study conducted by Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that moderate alcohol consumption seems to have a beneficial impact on the immune system compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence. Therefore, the link between alcohol consumption, immune response, as well as infectious and inflammatory processes remains not completely understood.
5. Water Consumption and UTIs
According to the study of "Mild dehydration: a risk factor of urinary tract infection?" by Beetz R., posted in PubMed., researchers found that the combination of the behaviourally determined aspects of host defence and not simply increasing fluid intake is important in therapy and prophylaxis of UTI.
C. Nutritional supplements
1. Vitamin A, click more this website details E, C, D
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrin are a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .
a. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.
b. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.
5. Glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.
Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.
a. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.
I. In conventional medicine
A. Uncomplicated Urinary tract infection
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection can be recovered quickly and is generally treated with Oral antibiotics, such as rimethoprim, cephalosporins. According to the study of “Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis” by Nicolle LE., posted in PuBMed, researchers indicated that Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis are very common infections affecting many women throughout their lives. The determinants of infection have been well described and current strategies to prevent recurrent infections are highly effective. While antimicrobial management is straightforward for most episodes, the evolution of antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli in community-acquired infection requires continuing re-evaluation of appropriate empiric therapy.
Pyelonephritis can be a serious case of kidney infection and treated more aggressively than a simple bladder infection with either a longer course of oral antibiotics or intravenous antibiotics. IV antibiotics can be performed in hospital as outpatient.
According to the study of `Advances in non-surgical treatments for urinary tract infections in children`by Yang SS, Chiang IN, Lin CD, Chang SJ., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that he proposed non-surgical management of pediatric UTI included behavioral modification (timed voiding and adequate fluids intake), topical steroid for phimosis, nutrient supplements (breast milk, cranberry, probiotics, and vitamin A), biofeedback training for dysfunctional voiding, anticholinergics for reducing intravesical pressure, alpha-blockers in dysfunctional voiding and neurogenic bladder, and intermittent catheterization for children with large PVR.
C. In case of infection caused by kidney stones
1. Laser treatment (Lithotripsy)
Lithotripsy is medical producer of physical destruction of kidney stones into smaller parts so they can passed through the ureter and expelled in the urine with the use of laser under anesthesia, if possible, as not all patient are right candidate for the procedure due to locations and size of the kidney stone.
2. Surgical treatment
In case of kidney stone can not be treated by laser lithotripsy, surgery is another option. In the removal of kidney stone surgery, after an incision is made in the abdomen, the kidney is carefully cut, during the surgical procedure, ice is essential and used to keep the kidneys cool to prevent irritation, then the stone is removed and any blockage is corrected to make sure that the kidneys can begin to function properly, before the incision is stitched up. During the surgery and after the kidney completely heal, a catheter is inserted into the kidney to ensure wwe supercard hack android that urine can pass out of the body.
D. In case of infection caused by tumor and cancer
1. In case of cancer found in the bladder, visit Bladder Cancer
2. in case of cancer found in the kidney, visit Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)
A. For urinary tract infection caused by tumor and cancer, visit
1. Bladder cancer
2. Kidney cancer
B. Other causes of urinary tract infection
Herbalist view cranberry as primary herbs for diuretic and in preventing and treating urinary tract infection by by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the urinary tract lining of the bladder and urethra, according to the article of “How Cranberry Juice Can Prevent Urinary Tract Infections” post in Science daily, writer wrote that Cranberry juice had no discernible effect on E. coli bacteria without fimbriae, suggesting that compounds in the juice may act directly on the molecular structure of the fimbriae themselves.
Bearberry also best known as Uva Ursi, has diuretic, astringent and antiseptic properties. and been used as tea in herbal medicine to treat urinary tract infection. In a study of “Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract” by Head KA., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that botanicals that can be effective at the first sign of an infection and for short-term prophylaxis include berberine and uva ursi. Estriol cream and vitamins A and C have also been shown to prevent UTIs, while potassium salts can alkalinize the urine and reduce dysuria.
Gloden-seal is said contains antimicrobial properties of which can be used to treated urinary tract infection, according to the article of “Golden-seal” posted in University of Maryland Medical Center, the author wrote that It (Golden-seal root) is commonly used to treat several skin, eye, and mucous membrane inflammatory and infectious conditions (such as sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and urinary tract infections). It is also available in mouthwashes for sore throats and canker sores.
4. Aloe Vera
Aloe Vera contains high amount of mannose which can be used to prevent and treat urinary tract infection according to the study of “Intervening with urinary tract infections using anti-adhesives based on the crystal structure of the FimH-oligomannose-3 complex” by
Wellens A, Garofalo C, Nguyen H, Van Gerven N, Slättegård R, Hernalsteens JP, Wyns L, Oscarson S, De Greve H, Hultgren S, Bouckaert J., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that
The potential of ligand-based design of antagonists of urinary tract infections is ruled by the structural mimicry of natural epitopes and extends into blocking of bacterial invasion, intracellular growth and capacity to fluxing and of recurrence of the infection.
Bilberry is best known in herbal medicine in treating eye related diseases, it laso contain high amount of antioxidants which not promote immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals and guarding our body against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus. In a study of “Bioactive compounds from northern plants’ by Hohtola A., posted in PubMed, researcher wrote that Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a characteristic field layer species in boreal forests. Bilberry and other northern Vaccinium species, berries and leaves, contain high amounts of phenolic compounds. Bilberries are known for its exceptionally high amounts of anthocyanins with powerful antioxidant capacity.
6. Green tea
According to the study of “Selective microbiologic effects of tea extract on certain antibiotics against Escherichia coli in vitro” by Neyestani TR, Khalaji N, Gharavi A., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the microbiologic effects of both black tea and green tea extracts on certain antibiotics against E. coli may vary, depending on the type of the tea extract (i.e., black vs. green), the amount of the extract, and the antibiotic being used.
III. Traditional Chinese medicine
A. For urinary tract infection caused by tumor and cancer, visit
1. Bladder cancer in TCM Perspective
2. Kidney (Renal) cancer
B. Other cause of urinary tract infection
B.1. Traditional Chinese medicine view urinary tract infection as a result of the of damp heat accumulation that lead to symptoms of a frequent urination, burning sensation, painful duirng sexual intercourse; cloudy or yellow-milky urine, etc.
1. Long dan cao (Gentian)
Besides it is used to treat liver heat caused by dampness accumulation due to spleen’ inability in materials absorption, It also enhances the liver and the gallbladder function in draining damp heat in the body through kidney urinary secretion.
2. Huang qin (Scullcap)
Huang qin is important to enhance the lung function by moistening the qi, thus reducing the risk of fever, irritability, thirst, cough. It also improves the stomach function in absorbing vital vitamins and minerals by clearing the heat caused extreme dampness that causes diarrhea and thirst with no desire to drink.
3. Zhi zi (Gardenia)
It improves the circulatory function by clearing the liver heat due to constrained liver and heat caused by infection or inflammation as a result of fluids accumulated in body for a prolong period of time.
4. Mu tong (Akebia)
Mu tong besides increases the kidney in clearing dampness through urinary secretion, it also enhances the blood function by draining the blood heat caused by blood stagnation.
5. Che qian cao (Plaintain root)
Che qian cao has a vital function by eliminating the toxin accumulated in the body and promoting damp heat expelling through urinary secretion.
6. Chai hu (Buplerum)
Chai hu enhances the spleen and stomach in qi and materials digestion, thereby reducing damp heat in the abdominal region caused by liver blood stagnation, resulting in lessening the menstrual cramps and pain and pain caused lung qi stagnation due to spleen abnormal function in qi transportation.
7. Gan cao (licorice root)
Gan cao reduces damp heat accumulated in the body in many different ways
a) It moistens the lung, thus reducing the lung dryness causing symptoms of coughing and promoting the smooth qi movement.
b) It reduces the heat caused by toxins in the body by eliminating them through urinary secretion.
c) It enhances the heart in regulating the movement of blood by strengthening the blood that stop the irregular pulse.
d) It increases the liver function in regulating the abdominal muscles, thus reducing the menstrual cramps and pain.
B.2. Spleen and kidney deficiency
Spleen is considered as the prenatal organ in traditional Chinese medicine. It means what you have is what you get. depletion of kidney Jing can have a serious effect in your health. Spleen is the organ responsible for distribution of Qi and nutrition to the body organ, including kidney and lung. Deficiency of kidney and spleen may result in the symptoms of urinary tract infection, including dribbling urination; frequent urination during the night; dull pain during urination; sporadic urination, recurrence of infection, lower back pain, etc.
1. Wu Bi Shan Yao Wan (Incomparable Dioscorea Pill)
The pill has been been used in TCM to treat urinary tract infection by nourishing the Yin enhancing the Yang and the Qi and Strengthens the Kidneys. It is one of the patent formula in a collection of 355 efficient valuable and most famous prescriptions among Chinese patent drugs. according to Chinese Patent Medicines (English Edition) Editor-in-Chief: Chen Keji, MD. Editors: Chen Kai MD, Zhang Qunhao MD, Wang Wei MD, Lin Yuxiong MD, Hsia I-Szu Ph.D. Published by Hunan Science & Technology Press, 1997
a. Shan Yao
Main uses; Tonifies Qi Kidney Yin and Spleen,nourishes the Stomach Yin.
b. Rou Cong Rong
Main uses; Tonifies the Kidneys, strengthens the Yang, benefits Kidney Jing and bone marrow
c. Wu Wei Zi
main uses; Tonifies the Kidneys, benefits Jing
d. Du Zhong
Main sues; Tonifies Yang, Kidneys and Liver
e. Niu Xi
main uses; Invigorates the Blood, nourishes the Liver and Kidney Yin
f. Sheng Di Huang
Main uses; Clears Heat, cools Blood, nourishes Yin and generates fluids
g. Ze Xie
Mian uses; Promotes urination, drains Kidney Fire and Dampness
h. Shan Zhu Yu
Main uses; Tonifies Liver and Kidney Yin, benefits Kidney Yang
k. Ba Ji Tian
Main sues; Tonifies Kidneys and strengthens Yang.
l. Chi Shi Zhi
Mian uses; Enhances the Intestines functions and stops diarrhea.
m. Tu Si Zi
main uses; Tonifies the Kidneys and Spleen, strengthens Yang, enhances Yin
n. Fu Shen
Main uses; Nourishes the Heart and calms the Shen
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